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Dictionary of Conditions and Terms

  • By admin
  • December 6, 2016
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A ringing in the ears. The ultimate rush accompanied by the ultimate tinnitus. i shot too much llello last nite & all i could hear was the damn aluminium train. The 12 month rule is when parents have to stop saying how many months old their baby is after they reach 1 year old. Used in Geometry. Reginald: Dave, I’m hungover. Much about him.

These organs, together with the nerves that send their signals to the brain, work to create normal hearing and balance. Running through each vestibular aqueduct is a fluid-filled tube called the endolymphatic duct, which connects the inner ear to a balloon-shaped structure called the endolymphatic sac. A vestibular aqueduct is considered enlarged if it is greater than 1.5 millimeters in size, roughly the diameter of the head of a pin. If a vestibular aqueduct is enlarged, the endolymphatic duct and sac usually grow large too. The functions of the endolymphatic sac and duct are not completely understood. Scientists currently believe that the endolymphatic sac and duct help to ensure that the fluid in the inner ear contains the correct amounts of certain chemicals called ions. However, the same person may be able to hear clearly the low-pitched sound of a truck rumbling down the street.

Research suggests that most children with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA) will develop some degree of hearing loss. Scientists also are finding that five to 15 percent of children with sensorineural hearing loss, or hearing loss caused by damage to sensory cells inside the cochlea, have EVA. However, scientists do not think that EVA causes hearing loss. Instead, scientists regard EVA as an important clue about hearing loss and its possible causes. This information helps physicians talk with families about how their child’s hearing loss may change over time. The presence of EVA can be a symptom of a genetic disorder called Pendred syndrome, a cause of childhood hearing loss. According to a study by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), approximately one-third of individuals with EVA and hearing loss have Pendred syndrome.


The man can also lunge his pelvic area forward for a harder bang. My doctor had tinnitus and was a good example of someone who lives with her. In addition to its association with hearing loss, EVA may also be linked with balance symptoms in a small percentage of people. However, the brain is very good at making up for a weak vestibular system, and most children and adults with EVA do not have a problem with their balance or have difficulty doing routine tasks. EVA can be a sign of a genetic disorder called Pendred syndrome, a cause of childhood hearing loss. According to a study by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), approximately one-fourth of the people with EVA and hearing loss have Pendred syndrome. Hearing loss associated with Pendred syndrome is usually progressive, which means that a child will lose hearing over time.

Some children may become totally deaf. This can occur as a result of hereditary factors as well as aging, various health conditions, and side effects of some medicines (aspirin and certain antibiotics). However, the brain is very good at making up for a weak vestibular system, and most children and adults with EVA don’t have balance disorders or difficulty doing routine tasks. EVA has many causes, not all of which are fully understood. The most well-known cause of EVA and hearing loss is mutations to a gene known as SLC26A4 (also referred to as the PDS gene) on chromosome 7. Two mutations in the PDS gene can result in Pendred syndrome. Scientists believe that other, currently unknown genetic or environmental factors also may result in EVA.

Medical professionals use different clues to help them determine the cause of an individual’s hearing loss. Two tests that are often used to identify the cause of hearing loss are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) imaging of a person’s inner ear. One or both tests are often recommended to evaluate a child with sensorineural hearing loss. There is a good chance that you can get now a little stress relief going. Although most CT scans of children with hearing loss are normal, EVA is the most commonly observed abnormality. No treatment has proven effective in reducing the hearing loss associated with EVA or in slowing its progression. Although some otolaryngologists recommend steroids to treat sudden sensorineural hearing loss, there are no scientific studies to show that this treatment is effective or ineffective when an individual also has EVA.

In addition, surgery to either drain liquid out of the endolymphatic sac and duct or to remove the endolymphatic sac and duct is not only ineffective in treating EVA, it can be harmful. Research has shown conclusively that these surgeries can destroy hearing. To reduce the likelihood of progression of hearing loss, individuals with enlarged vestibular aqueducts should avoid contact sports that might lead to head injury; wear head protection when engaged in activities that might lead to head injury (such as bicycle riding or skiing); and avoid situations that can lead to barotrauma (extreme, rapid changes in pressure), such as scuba diving or hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Consultation with specially trained professionals who work as a team is important for evaluation of a hearing loss and selection of appropriate management. The earlier hearing loss is identified in children, the sooner they can develop the skills that will help them learn and communicate with others. Children with permanent and progressive hearing loss, which often is linked with EVA, will benefit from learning other forms of communication, such as sign language or cued speech, or using assistive devices, such as a hearing aid or cochlear implant. While mutations of the SLC26A4 gene are known to cause EVA, not all EVA cases are the result of an SLC26A4 mutation.

Some cases may be caused by other genetic or environmental factors. For these reasons, NIDCD researchers are currently conducting a clinical trial to identify and understand the various factors that can lead to EVA and hearing loss. For more information on this study, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov, and enter “enlarged vestibular aqueducts” in the search box.

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Dictionary of Conditions and Terms

  • By admin
  • November 30, 2016
  • Comments Off on Dictionary of Conditions and Terms

Although opposition to implants in the deaf community is less than it once was, it is important to listen to the viewpoints of both sides. Information sessions are regularly held by our audiologists and information sessions can be organised at your clinical meetings, during rep time or before or after work. Interview an individual with a balance problem history. Dr Ralph Holme Action on Hearing Loss’ Head of Biomedical Research says: ‘It’s fantastic to be working with Advanced Bionics, investing in the next generation of scientists able to develop ever better cochlear implant technology helping deaf people around the world to live the life they choose’. How does someone receive a cochlear implant? What does the future hold for cochlear implants? It allowed people who wear a cochlear implant to retrain themselves to hear and consume music.

This case suggests that cochlear implantation is a viable option for patients who have lost their hearing to Meniere’s disease even when a number of medical treatments and surgical interventions have been performed to control vertigo. The Center’s team approach assures that each patient’s care is thorough and comprehensive; from initial evaluation to rehabilitation. The electrical signal stimulates the auditory nerve fibers, and the signal is then sent to the brain. State-of-the art cochlear implant devices now have up to 22 electrodes that stimulate the hearing nerves. An implant does not restore normal hearing. Once the implant receives the sound vibrations, the organ will “hear” in the same manner as through air conduction. A cochlear implant is very different from a hearing aid.

Hearing aids amplify sounds so they may be detected by damaged ears. It then dispatches the pulses to the electrodes that have been inserted deeply into the inner ear. Signals generated by the implant are sent by way of the auditory nerve to the brain, which recognizes the signals as sound. The electrode array is the only part which is actually inserted into the cochlear – the hearing nerve will be stimulated from electrical impulses emitted from tiny electrodes on the tip of the electrode array. These can include bone anchored, cochlear or other types of implantable hearing devices as well as the most advanced behind-the-ear, in-the-ear and custom fitted digital hearing aids. If you don’t hear at those frequencies, it sounds like everybody mumbles unintelligibly. For this reason, children with cleft palate should have their hearing regularly checked and may need to have their ears drained with small pressure equalisation tubes6.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as of December 2010, approximately 219,000 people worldwide have received implants. Hearing with a cochlear implant is not like regular hearing or hearing with a hearing aid, but the implants allow people to have conversations, recognize warning signals, and understand environmental sounds. That is to say, those patients who underwent bilateral implantation, each ear was considered a separate case. They learn to associate the signal provided by an implant with sounds they remember. This often provides recipients with the ability to understand speech solely by listening through the implant, without requiring any visual cues such as those provided by lipreading or sign language. Cochlear implants, coupled with intensive postimplantation therapy, can help young children to acquire speech, language, and social skills. Most children who receive implants are between two and six years old.

Early implantation provides exposure to sounds that can be helpful during the critical period when children learn speech and language skills. In 2000, the FDA lowered the age of eligibility to 12 months for one type of cochlear implant. Use of a cochlear implant requires both a surgical procedure and significant therapy to learn or relearn the sense of hearing. Not everyone performs at the same level with this device. The decision to receive an implant should involve discussions with medical specialists, including an experienced cochlear-implant surgeon. The process can be expensive. For example, a person’s health insurance may cover the expense, but not always.

Some individuals may choose not to have a cochlear implant for a variety of personal reasons. Cochlear implants have been helpful for thousands of children worldwide who have lost their hearing for different reasons, including meningitis. An additional consideration is learning to interpret the sounds created by an implant. This process takes time and practice. Speech-language pathologists and audiologists are frequently involved in this learning process. Prior to implantation, all of these factors need to be considered. With advancements in technology and continued follow-up studies with people who already have received implants, researchers are evaluating how cochlear implants might be used for other types of hearing loss.

In fact, an independent effect of hearing on cognition was observed. It may be possible to use a shortened electrode array, inserted into a portion of the cochlea, for individuals whose hearing loss is limited to the higher frequencies. Other studies are exploring ways to make a cochlear implant convey the sounds of speech more clearly. Commonly used medicines that may cause hearing loss include: large doses of aspirin; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; some antibiotics; loop diuretics used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure; and medicines used to treat cancer in children. The NIDCD maintains a directory of organizations that provide information on the normal and disordered processes of hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language. Duration of deafness and the word understanding scores achieved in testing before an implant is placed are the main factors that carry significant predictive power in forecasting the benefit of a cochlear implant.

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